Git

https://github.com/k88hudson/git-flight-rules

Set push.default

warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value has changed in Git 2.0 from ‘matching’ to ‘simple’. To squelch this message and maintain the traditional behavior, use:

git config –global push.default matching

To squelch this message and adopt the new behavior now, use:

git config –global push.default simple

When push.default is set to ‘matching’, git will push local branches to the remote branches that already exist with the same name.

Since Git 2.0, Git defaults to the more conservative ‘simple’ behavior, which only pushes the current branch to the corresponding remote branch that ‘git pull’ uses to update the current branch.

See ‘git help config’ and search for ‘push.default’ for further information. (the ‘simple’ mode was introduced in Git 1.7.11. Use the similar mode ‘current’ instead of ‘simple’ if you sometimes use older versions of Git)

$ git config --global push.default simple

Untrack and stop tracking files in git

$ git rm -r --cached .

Create new git project in bitbucket

$ mkdir /path/to/your/new_project

$ cd /path/to/your/new_project

$ git init

$ git remote add origin [email protected]:omidraha/new_project.git

$ git push -u origin master

Remove local (untracked) files from current Git branch

http://git-scm.com/docs/git-clean

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/61212/remove-local-untracked-files-from-my-current-git-branch

$ git clean

# If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set to false,
# git clean will refuse to run unless given -f, -n or -i.
$ git clean -f

# Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
$ git clean -f -d  # git clean -fd

# Remove only files ignored by Git.
# This may be useful to rebuild everything from scratch, but keep manually created files
$ git clean -f -X  #  git clean -fX

Install Git

$ sudo apt-get install git-core
$ git --version

Configure Git

https://github.com/yui/yui3/wiki/Set-Up-Your-Git-Environment

$ git config --global user.name "Omid Raha"
$ git config --global user.email [email protected]

$ vim ~/.gitconfig

[user]
    name = Omid Raha
    email = [email protected]
[push]
    default = simple
[core]
    autocrlf = input
[alias]
   st = status
   ci = commit
   co = checkout
   br = branch

$ vim ~/.gitignore

.DS_Store
._*
.svn
.hg
.*.swp

git commit as different user

$ git commit --author="Name <email>" -m "whatever"

Setting your username and email in Git

https://help.github.com/articles/setting-your-username-in-git/

https://help.github.com/articles/setting-your-email-in-git/

Git uses your username and email address to associate commits with an identity.

The git config command can be used to change your Git configuration, including your username and email address, It takes two arguments:

The setting you want to change–in this case, user.name or user.email

Your new name, for example, Billy Everyteen Your new email, for example, your_email@example.com

To set your username and email for a specific repository

Enter the following command in the root folder of your repository:

# Set a new name
$ git config user.name "Billy Everyteen"

# Set a new email
$ git config user.email "[email protected]"

# Verify the new name
$ git config user.name
# Billy Everyteen

# Verify the new email
$ git config user.name
# [email protected]

To set your username and email for every repository on your computer

Navigate to your repository from a command-line prompt.

Set your username and email with the following command.

$ git config --global user.name "Billy Everyteen"
$ git config --global user.email "[email protected]"

Confirm that you have set your username and email correctly with the following command.

$ git config --global user.name
# Billy Everyteen

$ git config --global user.email
# # [email protected]

To set your username and email for a single repository

Navigate to your repository from a command-line prompt.

Set your username and email with the following command.

$ git config user.name "Billy Everyteen"
$ git config user.email "[email protected]"

Confirm that you have set your username and email correctly with the following command.

$ git config user.name
# Billy Everyteen

$ git config user.email
# [email protected]

Setting up a git server

http://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-on-the-Server-Setting-Up-the-Server

Let’s walk through setting up SSH access on the server side. In this example, you’ll use the authorized_keys method for authenticating your users. We also assume you’re running a standard Linux distribution like Ubuntu. First, you create a git user and a .ssh directory for that user.

$ sudo adduser git
$ su git
$ cd
$ mkdir .ssh && chmod 700 .ssh
$ touch .ssh/authorized_keys && chmod 600 .ssh/authorized_keys

Next, you need to add some developer SSH public keys to the authorized_keys file for the git user. Let’s assume you have some trusted public keys and have saved them to temporary files. Again, the public keys look something like this:

$ cat /tmp/id_rsa.john.pub
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCB007n/ww+ouN4gSLKssMxXnBOvf9LGt4L
ojG6rs6hPB09j9R/T17/x4lhJA0F3FR1rP6kYBRsWj2aThGw6HXLm9/5zytK6Ztg3RPKK+4k
Yjh6541NYsnEAZuXz0jTTyAUfrtU3Z5E003C4oxOj6H0rfIF1kKI9MAQLMdpGW1GYEIgS9Ez
Sdfd8AcCIicTDWbqLAcU4UpkaX8KyGlLwsNuuGztobF8m72ALC/nLF6JLtPofwFBlgc+myiv
O7TCUSBdLQlgMVOFq1I2uPWQOkOWQAHukEOmfjy2jctxSDBQ220ymjaNsHT4kgtZg2AYYgPq
dAv8JggJICUvax2T9va5 gsg-keypair

You just append them to the git user’s authorized_keys file in its .ssh directory:

$ cat /tmp/id_rsa.john.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Now, you can set up an empty repository for them by running git init with the –bare option, which initializes the repository without a working directory:

$ cd /path/to/prj
$ git init --bare sample_prj.git

Then, John, Josie, or Jessica can push the first version of their project into that repository by adding it as a remote and pushing up a branch. Note that someone must shell onto the machine and create a bare repository every time you want to add a project.

# on Johns computer
$ cd myproject
$ git init
$ git add .
$ git commit -m 'initial commit'
$ git remote add origin [email protected]:/path/to/prj/sample_prj.git
$ git push origin master

At this point, the others can clone it down and push changes back up just as easily:

$ git clone [email protected]:/path/to/prj/sample_prj.git
$ cd project
$ vim README
$ git commit -am 'fix for the README file'
$ git push origin master

How do you discard unstaged changes in Git?

$ git checkout -- .

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/52704/how-do-you-discard-unstaged-changes-in-git

Working on github API

$ pip install pygithub3
from pygithub3 import Github
g = Github()
repo = = g.repos.get('django','django')

Undo changes in one file

$ git checkout /path/of/changed/file

List local and remote branches

$ git branch -a

List remote branches

$ git branch -r

List only local branches

$ git branch

With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will be highlighted with an asterisk.

Delete a Git branch both locally and remotely

To remove a local branch from your machine:

$ git branch -d  <Branch_Name>

The -D force deletes, -d gives you a warning if it’s not already merged in.

To remove a remote branch from the server:

# As of Git v1.7.0, you can delete a remote branch using
$ git push origin --delete <branchName>
# which is easier to remember than
$ git push origin :<Branch_Name>

http://stackoverflow.com/a/2003515

Merge a git branch into master

$ git checkout master
$ git merge <Branch_Name>

Remove last commit from remote git repository

$ git pull
# use `git update-ref -d HEAD` instead, if  it's initial git commit
$ git reset HEAD^
# now some committed files be unstage
# we can do git checkout for those files
# force-push the new HEAD commit
$ git push origin +HEAD

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/8225125/remove-last-commit-from-remote-git-repository https://stackoverflow.com/a/6637891

$ git stash
$ git status
$ git stash list
$ git stash apply

https://git-scm.com/book/en/v1/Git-Tools-Stashing

Undo the last commit from local

git reset --soft HEAD~

http://stackoverflow.com/a/927386

Revert to specific commit

git reset 56e05fced #resets index to former commit; replace '56e05fced' with your commit code
git reset --soft [email protected]{1} #moves pointer back to previous HEAD
git commit -m "Revert to 56e05fced"
git reset --hard #updates working copy to reflect the new commit
git push

Adding an existing project to GitHub using the command line

First create a new repository from github web site,

Then:

git remote add origin https://github.com/<USER-NAME>/<PROJECT-NAME>.git
git push -u origin master

Also if project does not exist on your local, create it with:

echo "# <PROJECT-NAME>" >> README.md
git init
git add README.md
git commit -m "first commit"
git remote add origin https://github.com/<USER-NAME>/<PROJECT-NAME>.git
git push -u origin master

Add tag

https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Basics-Tagging

Listing Your Tags

Listing the available tags in Git is straightforward. Just type git tag:

$ git tag
v0.1
v1.3

Annotated Tags

Creating an annotated tag in Git is simple. The easiest way is to specify -a when you run the tag command:

$ git tag -a v1.4 -m "my version 1.4"
$ git tag
v0.1
v1.3
v1.4

Lightweight Tags

Another way to tag commits is with a lightweight tag. This is basically the commit checksum stored in a file – no other information is kept. To create a lightweight tag, don’t supply the -a, -s, or -m option:

$ git tag v1.4-lw
$ git tag
v0.1
v1.3
v1.4
v1.4-lw
v1.5

Tag an older commit in Git?

git tag -a v1.2 9fceb02 -m "Message here"

Push a tag to a remote repository

$ git push --follow-tags

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5195859/push-a-tag-to-a-remote-repository-using-git

Remove (delete) a tag

$ git push --delete origin tag_name
#  delete the local tag
$ git tag --delete tag_name

Github “fatal: remote origin already exists”

http://stackoverflow.com/a/10904450

$ git remote set-url origin [email protected]:ppreyer/first_app.git

Install specific git commit with pip

$ cat requirements.txt
    git+https://github.com/Tivix/[email protected]

$ pip install -r requirements.txt
    # It's a warning, not an error.
    Could not find a tag or branch '976b3bbe4dded03552218c1022ee95d8bdf1176c', assuming commit.

https://pip.pypa.io/en/stable/reference/pip_install/#git

Rewriting the most recent commit message

$ git commit --amend
$ git push --force

https://help.github.com/articles/changing-a-commit-message/

git subtrees

$ cd /to/root/of/one/project/
$ git remote add sub-prj [email protected]:omidraha/sub-prj.git
$ git subtree add --prefix=src/sub-prj sub-prj dev

To update subtree project:

$ cd /to/root/of/one/project/
$ git subtree pull -P  src/sub-prj sub-prj dev

https://medium.com/@v/git-subtrees-a-tutorial-6ff568381844#.b923kyieb

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/18661894/git-updating-subree-how-can-i-update-my-subtree

Git fetch remote branch

Checkout to a new remote branch that exists only on the remote, but not locally

$ git fetch origin

http://stackoverflow.com/a/16608774

Sample release

Add tag and merge dev to mater

git checkout dev
git pull
git tag -a 2.0.1 -m "2.0.1"
git push --follow-tags

git checkout master
git pull
git merge dev
git push --follow-tags
git checkout dev

Warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value is changing in Git 2.0

warning: push.default is unset; its implicit value is changing in Git 2.0 from ‘matching’ to ‘simple’. To squelch this message and maintain the current behavior after the default changes, use:

git config --global push.default matching

To squelch this message and adopt the new behavior now, use:

git config --global push.default simple

matching means git push will push all your local branches to the ones with the same name on the remote. This makes it easy to accidentally push a branch you didn’t intend to.

simple means git push will push only the current branch to the one that git pull would pull from, and also checks that their names match. This is a more intuitive behavior, which is why the default is getting changed to this.

https://stackoverflow.com/a/13148313

Fatal: The upstream branch of your current branch does not match the name of your current branch.

git checkout rc
git push

fatal: The upstream branch of your current branch does not match the name of your current branch. To push to the upstream branch on the remote, use

git push origin HEAD:v1.1

To push to the branch of the same name on the remote, use

git push origin v0.2

Git keeps track of which local branch goes with which remote branch. When you renamed the remote branch, git lost track of which remote goes with your local rc branch. You can fix this using the –set-upstream-to or -u flag for the branch command.

git branch -u origin/rc

https://stackoverflow.com/a/27261804

Abort the merge

# git merge --abort

Track remote branch that doesn’t exist on local

Sometimes remote branch is not tracked on local, and there is no the branch name on the local:

Related error: Git: cannot checkout branch - error: pathspec did not match any file(s) known to git

$ git branch
    master
    dev

$ git branch -a

    remotes/origin/master
    remotes/origin/dev
    remotes/origin/rc
$ git remote update
$ git fetch --all
$ git checkout --track remotes/origin/rc
$ git branch
    master
    rc
    dev