Kubernetes is a container orchestration tool that builds upon 15 years of experience of running production workloads at Google, combined with best-of-breed ideas and practices from the community.

Although Kubernetes is a feature-rich project, a few key features caught our attention:

src/kubernetes/images/k8s_01.png src/kubernetes/images/k8s_02.png src/kubernetes/images/k8s_03.png



Pods are the atomic unit on the Kubernetes platform. When we create a Deployment on Kubernetes, that Deployment creates Pods with containers inside them (as opposed to creating containers directly). Each Pod is tied to the Node where it is scheduled, and remains there until termination (according to restart policy) or deletion. In case of a Node failure, identical Pods are scheduled on other available Nodes in the cluster.



A Pod always runs on a Node. A Node is a worker machine in Kubernetes and may be either a virtual or a physical machine, depending on the cluster. Each Node is managed by the control plane. A Node can have multiple pods, and the Kubernetes control plane automatically handles scheduling the pods across the Nodes in the cluster. The control plane’s automatic scheduling takes into account the available resources on each Node.

# To view what containers are inside that Pod and what images are used to build those containers
$ kubectl describe pods
# Anything that the application would normally send to STDOUT becomes logs for the container within the Pod.
$ kubectl logs $POD_NAME
# We can execute commands directly on the container once the Pod is up and running.
$ kubectl exec $POD_NAME
# Start a bash session in the Pod’s container
$ kubectl exec -ti $POD_NAME bash


A Service routes traffic across a set of Pods. Services are the abstraction that allow pods to die and replicate in Kubernetes without impacting your application. Discovery and routing among dependent Pods (such as the frontend and backend components in an application) is handled by Kubernetes Services.


A Service routes traffic across a set of Pods. Services are the abstraction that allow pods to die and replicate in Kubernetes without impacting your application. Discovery and routing among dependent Pods (such as the frontend and backend components in an application) is handled by Kubernetes Services.

Services match a set of Pods using labels and selectors, a grouping primitive that allows logical operation on objects in Kubernetes. Labels are key/value pairs attached to objects and can be used in any number of ways:

Designate objects for development, test, and production

Embed version tags

Classify an object using tags

# List the current Services from our cluster
$ kubectl get services
$ kubectl expose deployment/kubernetes-bootcamp --type="NodePort" --port 8080
$ kubectl get services
$ kubectl describe services/kubernetes-bootcamp


Running Kubernetes Locally via Minikube


$ curl -Lo minikube && chmod +x minikube && sudo mv minikube /usr/local/bin/
$ minikube get-k8s-versions
$ minikube start
$ minikube start --docker-env HTTP_PROXY=""  --docker-env HTTPS_PROXY=""
$ minikube docker-env
$ eval $(minikube docker-env)
$ docker ps
$ minikube addons list
$ minikube dashboard
$ kubectl run hello-minikube --port=8080
$ minikube ssh cat /var/lib/boot2docker/profile
$ minikube stop
$ minikube delete

Minikube behind a proxy

$ minikube start  --docker-env="http_proxy=" --docker-env="https_proxy=" start
$ kubectl cluster-info
# Listing the nodes in the cluster
$ kubectl get nodes
# List cluster events
$ kubectl get events
# List services that are running in the cluster
$ kubectl get services
$ kubectl get pods
$ kubectl get pods --namespace=kube-system

To start with, we will only see one service, named kubernetes . This service is the core API server, monitoring and logging services for the pods and cluster.

Even though we have not deployed any applications on Kubernetes yet, we note that there are several containers already running. The following is a brief description of each container:

  • fluentd-gcp (fluentd-elasticsearch by Elasticsearch and Kibana)

    This container collects and sends the cluster logs file to the Google Cloud Logging service.

  • kube-ui

    This is the UI that we saw earlier.

  • kube-controller-manager

    The controller manager controls a variety of cluster functions. Ensuring accurate and up-to-date replication is one of its vital roles. Additionally, it monitors, manages, and discovers new nodes. Finally, it manages and updates service endpoints.

  • kube-apiserver

    This container runs the API server. As we explored in the Swagger interface, this RESTful API allows us to create, query, update, and remove various components of our Kubernetes cluster.

  • kube-scheduler

    The scheduler takes unscheduled pods and binds them to nodes

  • etcd

    This runs the etcd software built by CoreOS. etcd is a distributed and consistent key-value store. This is where the Kubernetes cluster state is stored, updated, and retrieved by various components of K8s.

  • pause

    The Pause container is often referred to as the pod infrastructure container and is used to set up and hold the networking namespace and resource limits for each pod.

  • kube-dns

    provides the DNS and service discovery plumbing.

  • monitoring-heapster

    This is the system used to monitor resource usage across the cluster.

  • monitoring-influx-grafana

    provides the database and user interface we saw earlier for monitoring the infrastructure.

  • skydns

    This uses DNS to provide a distributed service discovery utility that works with etcd

  • kube2Sky

    This is the connector between skydns and kubernetes . Services in the API are monitored for changes and updated in skydns appropriately.

  • heapster

    This does resource usage and monitoring.

  • exechealthz

    This performs health checks on the pods.

The environment variable


$ kube-down
$ kube-up

basic scheduling service discovery health checking pods services replication controllers labels Node (formerly minions, Note that in v1.0, minion was renamed to node,)

The pods include services for DNS, logging, and pod health checks.


Pods essentially allow you to logically group containers and pieces of our application stacks together. While pods may run one or more containers inside, the pod itself may be one of many that is running on a Kubernetes (minion) node. As we’ll see, pods give us a logical group of containers that we can then replicate, schedule, and balance service endpoints across.


apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
    name: node-js-pod
    - name: node-js-pod
      image: bitnami/apache:latest
      - containerPort: 80
$ kubectl create -f nodejs-pod.yaml
$ kubectl describe pods/node-js-pod
$ kubectl exec node-js-pod—curl <private ip address>

By default, this runs a command in the first container it finds, but you can select a specific one using the -c argument.


Labels are just simple key-value pairs. You will see them on pods, replication controllers, services, and so on. The label acts as a selector and tells Kubernetes which resources to work with for a variety of operations. Think of it as a filtering option.


Services and replication controllers give us the ability to keep our applications running with little interruption and graceful recovery.

Services allow us to abstract access away from the consumers of our applications. Using a reliable endpoint, users and other programs can access pods running on your cluster seamlessly.

K8s achieves this by making sure that every node in the cluster runs a proxy named kube- proxy. As the name suggests, kube-proxy’s job is to proxy communication from a service endpoint back to the corresponding pod that is running the actual application.

Replication controllers (RCs)

As the name suggests, manage the number of nodes that a pod and included container images run on. They ensure that an instance of an image is being run with the specific number of copies.

RCs create a high-level mechanism to make sure that things are operating correctly across the entire application and cluster. RCs are simply charged with ensuring that you have the desired scale for your application. You define the number of pod replicas you want running and give it a template for how to create new pods. Just like services, we will use selectors and labels to define a pod’s membership in a replication controller.

Kubernetes doesn’t require the strict behavior of the replication controller. In fact, version 1.1 has a job controller in beta that can be used for short lived workloads which allow jobs to be run to a completion state


apiVersion: v1
kind: ReplicationController
    name: node-js
        name: node-js
deployment: demo
    replicas: 3
        name: node-js
        deployment: demo
                name: node-js
            -   name: node-js
                image: jonbaier/node-express-info:latest
                - containerPort: 80
  • Kind

    tells K8s what type of resource we are creating. In this case, the type is ReplicationController . The kubectl script uses a single create command for all types of resources. The benefit here is that you can easily create a number of resources of various types without needing to specify individual parameters for each type. However, it requires that the definition files can identify what it is they are specifying.

  • ApiVersion

    simply tells Kubernetes which version of the schema we are using. All examples in this book will be on v1 .

  • Metadata

    is where we will give the resource a name and also specify labels that willbe used to search and select resources for a given operation. The metadata element also allows you to create annotations, which are for nonidentifying information that might be useful for client tools and libraries.

  • spec

    which will vary based on the kind or type of resource we are creating. In this case, it’s ReplicationController , which ensures the desired number of pods are running. The replicas element defines the desired number of pods, the selector tells the controller which pods to watch, and finally, the template element defines a template to launch a new pod. The template section contains the same pieces we saw in our pod definition earlier. An important thing to note is that the selector values need to match the labels values specified in the pod template. Remember that this matching is used to select the pods being managed.

$ kubectl create -f nodejs-controller.yaml
$ kubectl create -f nodejs-rc-service.yaml

A Kubernetes cluster is formed out of 2 types of resources:

Master is coordinating the cluster Nodes are where we run applications

# docker run –net=host -d /usr/local/bin/etcd –addr= –bind-addr= –data-dir=/var/etcd/data # docker run –net=host -d -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock /hyperkube kubelet –api_servers=http://localhost:8080 –v=2 –address= –enable_server –hostname_override= –config=/etc/kubernetes/manifests # docker run -d –net=host –privileged /hyperkube proxy –master= –v=2

Install manually

$ git clone --depth 1
$ export KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=vagrant
$ export KUBE_VERSION=1.2.0
$ export FLANNEL_VERSION=0.5.0
$ export ETCD_VERSION=2.2.0
$ export K8S_VERSION=$(curl -sS
$ export K8S_VERSION=$(curl -sS

Guestbook Example

Service Discovery

There are two ways Kubernetes can implement service discovery: through environment variables and through DNS.

Install kubectl binary via curl

$ curl -LO$(curl -s
# To download a specific version
$ curl -LO
$ chmod +x ./kubectl
$ sudo mv ./kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl

Interactive K8S starting guide

$ kubectl cluster-info
# Shows all nodes that can be used to host our applications on the nodes in the cluster
$ kubectl get nodes
# Show both the client and the server versions
$ kubectl version
# Deploy our app
$ kubectl run kubernetes-bootcamp --port=80
    deployment "kubernetes-bootcamp" created
# List our deployments
$ kubectl get deployments
    kubernetes-bootcamp   1         1         1            1           4m
$ kubectl proxy
    Starting to serve on
$ export POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods -o go-template --template '{{range .items}}{{}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}')
$ echo Name of the Pod: $POD_NAME
$ kubectl get pods
    NAME                                  READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    kubernetes-bootcamp-390780338-rpcw8   1/1       Running   0          12m


Working with kubectl

$ kubectl version
    Client Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"13", GitVersion:"v1.13.1", GitCommit:"eec55b9ba98609a46fee712359c7b5b365bdd920", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2018-12-13T10:39:04Z", GoVersion:"go1.11.2", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}
    Server Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"11", GitVersion:"v1.11.6", GitCommit:"b1d75deca493a24a2f87eb1efde1a569e52fc8d9", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2018-12-16T04:30:10Z", GoVersion:"go1.10.3", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}

$ kubectl cluster-info
    Kubernetes master is running at
    KubeDNS is running at

    To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.
$ kubectl config view
    apiVersion: v1
    - cluster:
        certificate-authority-data: DATA+OMITTED
      name: sample-cluster
    - context:
        cluster: sample-cluster
        user: user-c8kmt
      name: sample-cluster
    current-context: sample-cluster
    kind: Config
    preferences: {}
    - name: user-c8kmt
        token: kubeconfig-user-c8kmt:7nlsm6vxwrtp9bl79whg42sp7k5vrtc86qskqg9ksvm6xb5dbc558n

$ kubectl get nodes
    NAME         STATUS   ROLES               AGE   VERSION
    ubuntu-190   Ready    controlplane,etcd   27m   v1.11.6
    ubuntu-191   Ready    worker              12m   v1.11.6

$ kubectl top node
    NAME         CPU(cores)   CPU%   MEMORY(bytes)   MEMORY%
    ubuntu-190   107m         5%     1943Mi          50%
    ubuntu-191   40m          2%     786Mi           20%

$ kubectl get events

$ kubectl get namespaces
    NAME            STATUS   AGE
    cattle-system   Active   5d
    default         Active   5d
    ingress-nginx   Active   5d
    kube-public     Active   5d
    kube-system     Active   5d

$ kubectl create namespace sample-ns

    namespace/sample-ns created

$ kubectl config get-contexts
    CURRENT   NAME             CLUSTER          AUTHINFO     NAMESPACE
    *         sample-cluster   sample-cluster   user-c8kmt

$ kubectl config current-context

$ kubectl config set-context sample-cluster --namespace=sample-ns
    Context "sample-cluster" modified.

$ kubectl config get-contexts
    CURRENT   NAME             CLUSTER          AUTHINFO     NAMESPACE
    *         sample-cluster   sample-cluster   user-c8kmt   sample-ns

$ kubectl run example-app --image=nginx:latest --port=80
    kubectl run --generator=deployment/apps.v1 is DEPRECATED and will be removed in a future version. Use kubectl run --generator=run-pod/v1 or kubectl create instead.
    deployment.apps/example-app created

$ kubectl expose deployment example-app --type=NodePort
    service/example-app exposed

$ kubectl run sample-app --image=nginx:latest
    kubectl run --generator=deployment/apps.v1 is DEPRECATED and will be removed in a future version. Use kubectl run --generator=run-pod/v1 or kubectl create instead.
    deployment.apps/example-app created

$ kubectl expose deployment sample-app  --type=NodePort --port=80 --name=sample-service
    service/sample-service exposed

$ kubectl get services  --all-namespaces
    NAMESPACE       NAME                   TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
    default         kubernetes             ClusterIP       <none>        443/TCP         1h
    ingress-nginx   default-http-backend   ClusterIP    <none>        80/TCP          5d
    kube-system     kube-dns               ClusterIP      <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   5d
    kube-system     metrics-server         ClusterIP    <none>        443/TCP         5d
    sample-ns       example-app            NodePort   <none>        80:31525/TCP    16m
    sample-ns       sample-service         NodePort   <none>        80:30033/TCP    5m

$ kubectl describe services
    Name:                     example-app
    Namespace:                default
    Labels:                   run=example-app
    Selector:                 run=example-app
    Type:                     NodePort
    Port:                     <unset>  80/TCP
    TargetPort:               80/TCP
    NodePort:                 <unset>  32093/TCP
    Session Affinity:         None
    External Traffic Policy:  Cluster
    Events:                   <none>

    Name:                     sample-service
    Namespace:                default
    Labels:                   run=sample-app
    Selector:                 run=sample-app
    Type:                     NodePort
    Port:                     <unset>  80/TCP
    TargetPort:               80/TCP
    NodePort:                 <unset>  32134/TCP
    Session Affinity:         None
    External Traffic Policy:  Cluster
    Events:                   <none>

$ kubectl get pods
    NAME                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    example-app-75967bd4d-b4v7g   1/1     Running   0          16m
    sample-app-7d77dc8bbc-xhrjh   1/1     Running   0          6m

$ kubectl get pods --show-labels
    NAME                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   LABELS
    example-app-75967bd4d-ph256   1/1     Running   0          8m    pod-template-hash=315236808,run=sample-app
    sample-app-7d77dc8bbc-2h77g   1/1     Running   0          20m   pod-template-hash=3833874667,run=sample-app

$ kubectl get pods --namespace=kube-system
    NAME                                      READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
    canal-f9zgh                               3/3     Running     0          45m
    canal-q2955                               3/3     Running     0          31m
    kube-dns-7588d5b5f5-drhqd                 3/3     Running     0          45m
    kube-dns-autoscaler-5db9bbb766-5jn5b      1/1     Running     0          45m
    metrics-server-97bc649d5-qbkdf            1/1     Running     0          45m
    rke-ingress-controller-deploy-job-pf6ks   0/1     Completed   0          45m
    rke-kubedns-addon-deploy-job-lgmxs        0/1     Completed   0          45m
    rke-metrics-addon-deploy-job-5swcc        0/1     Completed   0          45m
    rke-network-plugin-deploy-job-sbzbs       0/1     Completed   0          45m

$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
    NAMESPACE       NAME                                      READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
    cattle-system   cattle-cluster-agent-57458fc9b9-lvzsx     1/1     Running     1          5d
    cattle-system   cattle-node-agent-8tqv2                   1/1     Running     0          5d
    cattle-system   cattle-node-agent-fd2wh                   1/1     Running     0          5d
    ingress-nginx   default-http-backend-797c5bc547-q2w62     1/1     Running     0          5d
    ingress-nginx   nginx-ingress-controller-7szwb            1/1     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     canal-f9zgh                               3/3     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     canal-q2955                               3/3     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     kube-dns-7588d5b5f5-drhqd                 3/3     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     kube-dns-autoscaler-5db9bbb766-5jn5b      1/1     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     metrics-server-97bc649d5-qbkdf            1/1     Running     0          5d
    kube-system     rke-ingress-controller-deploy-job-pf6ks   0/1     Completed   0          5d
    kube-system     rke-kubedns-addon-deploy-job-lgmxs        0/1     Completed   0          5d
    kube-system     rke-metrics-addon-deploy-job-5swcc        0/1     Completed   0          5d
    kube-system     rke-network-plugin-deploy-job-sbzbs       0/1     Completed   0          5d
    sample-ns       example-app-75967bd4d-clmfb               1/1     Running     0          42m
    sample-ns       sample-app-7d77dc8bbc-wkdxt               1/1     Running     0          30m

$ kubectl get deployments
    example-app   1         1         1            1           16m
    sample-app    1         1         1            1           6m

$ kubectl get deployments  --all-namespaces
    cattle-system   cattle-cluster-agent   1         1         1            1           5d
    ingress-nginx   default-http-backend   1         1         1            1           5d
    kube-system     kube-dns               1         1         1            1           5d
    kube-system     kube-dns-autoscaler    1         1         1            1           5d
    kube-system     metrics-server         1         1         1            1           5d
    sample-ns       example-app            1         1         1            1           43m
    sample-ns       sample-app             1         1         1            1           31m

$ kubectl delete deployments --all
    deployment.extensions "example-app" deleted
    deployment.extensions "sample-app" deleted

$ kubectl delete services --all
    service "example-app" deleted
    service "sample-service" deleted

Difference between targetPort and port in kubernetes Service definition

Port: Port is the port number which makes a service visible to other services running within the same K8s cluster. In other words, in case a service wants to invoke another service running within the same Kubernetes cluster, it will be able to do so using port specified against “port” in the service spec file. port is the port your service listens on inside the cluster.

Target Port: Target port is the port on the POD where the service is running. Taget Port is also by default the same value as port if not specified otherwise.

Nodeport: Node port is the port on which the service can be accessed from external users using Kube-Proxy. nodePort is the port that a client outside of the cluster will “see”. nodePort is opened on every node in your cluster via kube-proxy. With iptables magic Kubernetes (k8s) then routes traffic from that port to a matching service pod (even if that pod is running on a completely different node). nodePort is unique, so two different services cannot have the same nodePort assigned. Once declared, the k8s master reserves that nodePort for that service. nodePort is then opened on EVERY node (master and worker), also the nodes that do not run a pod of that service k8s iptables magic takes care of the routing. That way you can make your service request from outside your k8s cluster to any node on nodePort without worrying whether a pod is scheduled there or not.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: test-service
  - port: 8080
    targetPort: 8170
    nodePort: 33333
    protocol: TCP
    component: test-service-app

The port is 8080 which represents that test-service can be accessed by other services in the cluster at port 8080.

The targetPort is 8170 which represents the test-service is actually running on port 8170 on pods

The nodePort is 33333 which represents that test-service can be accessed via kube-proxy on port 33333.

Sample Project

Deploy a docker registry in the kubernetes cluster and configure Ingress with Let’s Encrypt

Deploy a docker registry without TLS is the kubernetes cluster

Define namespace, deployment, service and ingress in one file called docker-registry-deployment.yaml:

# Local docker registry without TLS
# kubectl create -f docker-registry.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
  name: docker-registry

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
  name: docker-registry
    name: docker-registry
  namespace: docker-registry
  replicas: 1
        app: docker-registry
      - name: docker-registry
        image: registry:2
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        - containerPort: 5000
#        @note: we enable delete image API
          value: "true"
        - name: REGISTRY_HTTP_ADDR
          value: ":5000"
          value: "/var/lib/registry"
          - name: docker-registry-mount
            mountPath: "/var/lib/registry"
      - name: docker-registry-mount
          claimName: docker-registry-pvc


kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
  name: docker-registry
  namespace: docker-registry
    app: docker-registry
    - port: 5000
      targetPort: 5000


apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
  annotations: "0" "600" "600"
  name: docker-registry
  namespace: docker-registry
  - host:
      - backend:
          serviceName: docker-registry
          servicePort: 5000
        path: /


apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolume
  name: docker-registry-pv
    type: local
  namespace: docker-registry
    storage: 20Gi
  storageClassName: standard
    - ReadWriteOnce
    path: "/data/docker-registry-pv"


apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
  name: docker-registry-pvc
    type: local
  namespace: docker-registry
    - ReadWriteOnce
      storage: 20Gi
  volumeName: docker-registry-pv
  storageClassName: standard

Deploy on kubernetes:

$ kubectl create -f docker-registry-deployment.yaml

Configure docker service to use local insecure registry

Add --insecure-registry to docker.service file:

$ sudo vim  /lib/systemd/system/docker.service

    ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd  --max-concurrent-downloads 1 --insecure-registry -H fd://

Or add to daemon.json file:

$ vim /etc/docker/daemon.json

        "insecure-registries" : [""]

And then restart docker:

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ service docker restart

Add tag same as registry name to one image and push it to local registry:

$ docker tag nginx:1.10.2
$ docker push

Now repo is available:

List of images on local docker registry:

Deploy a new nginx pod from local registry on kubernetes:

$ kubectl run nginx


You need to update DNS for on host and nodes.

Delete images from a private local docker registry

$ curl --head -XGET -H "Accept: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json"

    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Server: nginx/1.13.12
    Date: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 08:51:01 GMT
    Content-Type: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json
    Content-Length: 3237
    Connection: keep-alive
    Docker-Content-Digest: sha256:6298d62cef5e82170501d4d9f9b3d7549b8c272fae787f1b93829edd472f894a
    Docker-Distribution-Api-Version: registry/2.0
    Etag: "sha256:6298d62cef5e82170501d4d9f9b3d7549b8c272fae787f1b93829edd472f894a"
    X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff

$ curl -X DELETE -H "Accept: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json"

By default delete is disable, and you will see this error:

{"errors":[{"code":"UNSUPPORTED","message":"The operation is unsupported."}]}

to enable it you need to set REGISTRY_STORAGE_DELETE_ENABLED=true env.

Assigning Pods to Nodes

Attach label to the node:

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES               AGE   VERSION
ubuntu-190   Ready    controlplane,etcd   33d   v1.11.6
ubuntu-191   Ready    worker              34m   v1.11.6
ubuntu-192   Ready    worker              38s   v1.11.6
ubuntu-193   Ready    worker              9s    v1.11.6
# kubectl label nodes <node-name> <label-key>=<label-value>
$ kubectl label nodes ubuntu-191 workerType=Storage

Add a nodeSelector field to pod configuration:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: postgres
    env: test
  - name: postgres
    image: postgres
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent

Self-managed Kubernetes Vs Managed Kubernetes

Kubernetes manager

Kubernetes Secrets Management


kubectl get ingress -A -o wide
kubectl describe ingress -A
kubectl get ingress -A -o json
kubectl get ing -o=custom-columns=','
kubectl get ingress -A
    NAMESPACE                 NAME                 CLASS    HOSTS         ADDRESS         PORTS   AGE
    aws-lb-controller-dev-1 ingress-name-dev-1 <none>   k8s-awslbcon-ingressn-**   80      17m

kubectl get ingress/ingress-name-dev-1 -n aws-lb-controller-dev-1
    NAME                 CLASS   HOSTS        ADDRESS                                               PORTS   AGE
    ingress-name-dev-1   <none>  k8s-awslbcon-ingressn-**   80      13m

kubectl describe ingress  ingress-name-dev-1 -n aws-lb-controller-dev-1

Ingress namespace

Ingress rule needs to be created in the same namespace as the service rule(s) its referencing. Or else, as discussed in the same thread, one must find a way to include the namespace as part of the reference to that service.

kubectl describe ingress  ingress-name-dev-1 -n aws-lb-controller-dev-1
    Name:             ingress-name-dev-1
    Labels:           app=ingress-name-dev-1
    Namespace:        aws-lb-controller-dev-1
    Ingress Class:    <none>
    Default backend:  <default>
      Host         Path  Backends
      ----         ----  --------
                   /app1   eks-service-01-dev-1-443996a5:80 (
    Annotations: internet-facing
      Type    Reason                  Age                From     Message
      ----    ------                  ----               ----     -------
      Normal  SuccessfullyReconciled  13m (x2 over 70m)  ingress  Successfully reconciled

curl -v  -H 'Host:' > index.html

The difference between a pod and a deployment

The create command can be used to create a pod directly, or it can create a pod or pods through a Deployment. It is highly recommended that you use a Deployment to create your pods. It watches for failed pods and will start up new pods as required to maintain the specified number. If you don’t want a Deployment to monitor your pod (e.g. your pod is writing non-persistent data which won’t survive a restart, or your pod is intended to be very short-lived), you can create a pod directly with the create command.

Both Pod and Deployment are full-fledged objects in the Kubernetes API. Deployment manages creating Pods by means of ReplicaSets. What it boils down to is that Deployment will create Pods with spec taken from the template. It is rather unlikely that you will ever need to create Pods directly for a production use-case.


“”: “alb”

  • nginx: Refers to the NGINX Ingress Controller.

  • traefik: Refers to the Traefik Ingress Controller.

  • alb: Refers to the AWS ALB (Application Load Balancer) Ingress Controller.

  • gce: Refers to the Google Cloud GKE (Google Kubernetes Engine) Ingress Controller.

  • contour: Refers to the Contour Ingress Controller.

  • istio: Refers to the Istio Ingress Gateway.

Helm aws-load-balancer-controller


The spec.selector.matchLabels in a Deployment yaml means control replicaSet/Pods which have this label, and spec.template.metadata.labels in this same Deployment yaml means Assigns this label when creating a ReplicaSet/Pod (it must match spec.selector.matchLabels).

Ingress Controllers

Kubernetes as a project supports and maintains AWS, GCE, and nginx ingress controllers.

Ingress FailedBuildModel

kubectl get ingress -A -o wide
kubectl describe ingress ingress-name-** -n aws-lb-controller-**

  Type     Reason            Age                   From     Message
  ----     ------            ----                  ----     -------
  Warning  FailedBuildModel  6m55s (x18 over 17m)  ingress  Failed build model due to ingress: aws-lb-controller-*/ingress-*: prefix path shouldn't contain wildcards: /*

Getting a shell to a container

kubectl get pods -A -o wide
kubectl exec --stdin --tty eks-deployment-*** -n aws-lb-controller-*** --  sh

Provisioning status

Persistent Volume Claim (PVC)

kubectl get pvc -A -o wide
kubectl describe pvc -A


kubectl get statefulset   -A -o wide

Pod communication

A Pod can successfully resolve either service_name.namespace_name or service_name.namespace_name.svc.cluster.local

telnet service_name.namespace_name 6379
telnet service_name.namespace_name.svc.cluster.local 6379

Namespaces and DNS

When you create a Service, it creates a corresponding DNS entry. This entry is of the form <service-name>.<namespace-name>.svc.cluster.local, which means that if a container only uses <service-name>, it will resolve to the service which is local to a namespace.

This is useful for using the same configuration across multiple namespaces such as Development, Staging and Production. If you want to reach across namespaces, you need to use the fully qualified domain name (FQDN).

Install kubectl

curl -LO "$(curl -L -s"

Installing aws-iam-authenticator

Amazon EKS uses IAM to provide authentication to your Kubernetes cluster through the AWS IAM authenticator for Kubernetes. You can configure the stock kubectl client to work with Amazon EKS by installing the AWS IAM authenticator for Kubernetes and modifying your kubectl configuration file to use it for authentication.

curl -Lo aws-iam-authenticator
chmod +x ./aws-iam-authenticator
mkdir -p $HOME/bin && cp ./aws-iam-authenticator $HOME/bin/aws-iam-authenticator && export PATH=$HOME/bin:$PATH
echo 'export PATH=$HOME/bin:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc
aws-iam-authenticator help

Creating or updating a kubeconfig file for an Amazon EKS cluster

aws sts get-caller-identity
aws eks update-kubeconfig --region region-code --name my-cluster
kubectl get svc

ّImage policy



Copy file from local to the POD

kubectl cp sample.txt  pod-name:/path/in/the/pod -n pod-name-space

Create a kubernetes deployment without service

Simply remove the entire Service object. For example for background tasks that only connects to other services, but does not expose any ports it listens to. Since you have an app that doesn’t need to communicate via the network, you don’t need a service. Think of the service as a kind of specialized load-balancer in front of an (HTTP?) API your pods expose. Since you don’t have that API, you don’t need it.


# Monitor overall Kubernetes cluster utilization and capacity.
# Original source:
# Tested with:
#   - AWS EKS v1.11.5
# Does not require any other dependencies to be installed in the cluster.

set -e

NODES=$($KUBECTL get nodes --no-headers -o

function usage() {
  local node_count=0
  local total_percent_cpu=0
  local total_percent_mem=0
  local readonly nodes=$@

  for n in $nodes; do
    local requests=$($KUBECTL describe node $n | grep -A3 -E "\\s\sRequests" | tail -n2)
    local percent_cpu=$(echo $requests | awk -F "[()%]" '{print $2}')
    local percent_mem=$(echo $requests | awk -F "[()%]" '{print $8}')
    echo "$n: ${percent_cpu}% CPU, ${percent_mem}% memory"

    node_count=$((node_count + 1))
    total_percent_cpu=$((total_percent_cpu + percent_cpu))
    total_percent_mem=$((total_percent_mem + percent_mem))

  local readonly avg_percent_cpu=$((total_percent_cpu / node_count))
  local readonly avg_percent_mem=$((total_percent_mem / node_count))

  echo "Average usage: ${avg_percent_cpu}% CPU, ${avg_percent_mem}% memory."

usage $NODES

Kubectl get event

kubectl get event -n kube-system

Kubectl debug pod

kubectl run --rm -it --restart=Never debug --image=busybox -- sh

Delete resources

kubectl delete all --all -n example-namespace
  • The first all means the common resource kinds (pods, replicasets, deployments, …)

  • The second –all means to select all resources of the selected kinds

Delete terminating namespace

kubectl get namespace  -A
    NAME              STATUS        AGE
    my-ns           Terminating   2d21h
    default           Active        2d21h
    kube-node-lease   Active        2d21h
    kube-public       Active        2d21h
    kube-system       Active        2d21h

kubectl get namespace  my-ns  -n my-ns -o json > ns.json
geany ns.json
    "spec": {
        "finalizers": []
kubectl proxy
# In new tab
curl -k -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X PUT --data-binary @ns.json

Logging and Monitoring

Configure Fluent Bit


A DaemonSet ensures that all (or some) Nodes run a copy of a Pod. As nodes are added to the cluster, Pods are added to them. As nodes are removed from the cluster, those Pods are garbage collected. Deleting a DaemonSet will clean up the Pods it created.

Some typical uses of a DaemonSet are: * running a cluster storage daemon on every node * running a logs collection daemon on every node * running a node monitoring daemon on every node

StorageClass PersistentVolume PersistentVolumeClaim

A persistent volume (PV) is a piece of storage in the Kubernetes cluster, while a persistent volume claim (PVC) is a request for storage.

PersistentVolumeClaim (PVC):

represents a request for a volume. Pods that need to persist data reference a PersistentVolumeClaim, which is then matched to a PersistentVolume by Kubernetes if it finds one with specified requirements.

PersistentVolume (PV):

represents the actual storage backend. It has a size, type, and access mode (defines how many pods can access it simultaneously and if it is read-only). This object needs to be backed by an actual storage backend and is not ephemeral: you could define a new PVC, and if this volume is not in use, it could be reused and rewritten.

StorageClass (SC):

is used for dynamic provisioning to define the types of storage available, and which provisioner handles them.

PersistentVolume creation is the part that is not directly handled by Kubernetes, and there are 2 ways to get around it:

Manual provisioning:

the cluster administrator manually creates PersistentVolume objects, after having provisioned a storage backend: NFS, separate partition on a local drive, cloud provider volumes, ..

Dynamic provisioning:

the administrator creates a StorageClass and installs a volume provisioner on the cluster. The provisioner is responsible to make calls to the cloud provider’s API to create volumes on-demand to match created PVCs. For cloud deployments, dynamic provisioning is fairly easy, since Kubernetes comes bundled with ways to interact with all major cloud provider’s volume backends, such as AWS EBS, so you just need to define the storage class. However for on-premise deployments, the primary solution is to have an external backend such as a Ceph cluster or NFS, that is not handled by Kubernetes, and install a provisioner for it in your cluster. We will explore another solution in this article, but you can also use the NFS provisioner, depending on your need.

List of CSI Drivers

Open-source storage solution for Kubernetes

Get events sort by time

kubectl get events --sort-by=.metadata.creationTimestamp -A

Get events only for a pod

kubectl get event -n namespace_name --field-selector --sort-by=.metadata.creationTimestamp

Service account

Configuring a Kubernetes service account to assume an IAM role

Logs all pods

kubectl logs --all-containers  -l key=val  -n namespace --max-log-requests=10 -f

SSH to node

$ kubectl get nodes  -A
    NAME                                         STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION    Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba   Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba    Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba     Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba     Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba     Ready    <none>   8d    v1.27.4-eks-8ccc7ba

$ kubectl debug node/ -it --image=busybox
$ chroot /host

Delete generated debug pod:

kubectl get pods  -A
kubectl delete pod  --now


  • busybox


Distribute a pod across nodes

import pulumi
import pulumi_kubernetes as kubernetes

topology_spread_constraints = kubernetes.core.v1.TopologySpreadConstraintArgs(

    dep = kubernetes.apps.v1.Deployment(

get All pods for each node

kubectl get pod -o=custom-columns=NODE:.spec.nodeName, --all-namespaces
kubectl get pod,STATUS:.status.phase,NODE:.spec.nodeName --all-namespaces

Taints and Tolerations

kubectl get nodes -o,TAINTS:.spec.taints[*].effect
kubectl get pods -A -o custom-columns=NAMESPACE:.metadata.namespace,,TOLERATIONS:.spec.tolerations[*].key

The access modes


the volume can be mounted as read-write by a single node.

ReadWriteOnce access mode still can allow multiple pods to access the volume when the pods are running on the same node.


the volume can be mounted as read-only by many nodes.


the volume can be mounted as read-write by many nodes.


the volume can be mounted as read-write by a single Pod.

Use ReadWriteOncePod access mode if you want to ensure that only one pod across the whole cluster can read that PVC or write to it. This is only supported for CSI volumes and Kubernetes version 1.22+.

Secure Kubernetes secrets on bare metal

Encrypting Confidential Data at Rest

NGINX Ingress rate limit

Bare-metal considerations

Load balancing

kubectl edit deployment coredns -n kube-system kubectl edit deployment metrics-server -n kube-system

NGINX Ingress

What is ingress controller

Ingress exposes HTTP and HTTPS routes from outside the cluster to services within the cluster. Traffic routing is controlled by rules defined on the Ingress resource.

An Ingress controller is responsible for fulfilling the Ingress, usually with a load balancer, though it may also configure your edge router or additional frontend to help handle the traffic.

kubectl get ingressclass

NGINX Ingress Controller Preserving the client source IP

NGINX Ingress Bare-metal considerations